A metal is a solid material that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and acts as good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Types of Metal
There are two classifications of engineering metals. These are:
- Ferrous Metals
- Non-Ferrous Metals
Ferrous Metals are metals that contain iron, therefore they are magnetic. Ferrous metals are very strong, but they corrode easily. Examples of ferrous metals are: alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, pig iron and wrought iron.
Non-ferrous Metals are metals that do not contain iron, so they are not magnetic. Non-ferrous irons have lower strength but higher ability to resist corrosion. Non-ferrous metals are attractive in colour. Examples of non-ferrous metals are: copper, brass, aluminium, zinc, bronze and lead.
Properties of metal
· Ductile (can be drawn into wires)
· Good conductors of heat and electricity.
· High density (heavy for their size)
· High melting point.
· Lustrous (shiny)
· Malleable (can be hammered)
· Opaque as a thin sheet (can’t see through metals)
· Usually solid at room temperature (an exception is mercury)
Metals are obtained from iron ore, which is dug from the ground. Metals are extracted from the iron ore through a process of smelting in a special equipment called Furnace.
A furnace is a device where metals can be heated to a certain temperature.
Examples of furnace:
- Electric Furnace: used for producing other grades of metal and steel.
- Blast Furnace: used for producing pig iron.
- Reverberating Furnace: used for producing non-ferrous metals
- Open-heart Furnace: used for producing special steel, stainless steel
- Bessemer Converter: used for producing other grades of metal or steel.
Class Activity: (a) Describe the following metals:
- Iron ore:
- Pig iron:
- Cast Iron:
(b) mention the uses of the following examples of metals:
(c) complete the following equations:
- Copper + _______________ = Brass
- Copper + ________________ = Pewter
- Phosphorous + Tin + ________________= Bronze
- What is a metal?
- State two categories of metals,
- List three examples of each of the major categories of metals
- What is Metal Processing?
- Describe a furnace.
- Mention 4 examples of furnace
- Mention the names of 5 metals.
- State 5 uses of metals.
- What is an alloy?
- What are ceramics?
- What is pottery?
- Who is a potter?
- What are the three materials for making cement?
- What is clay?
- What is cement?
- What are glasses?
- What are 5 properties of ceramics?
- What are 4 differences between ceramics and metals?